Leishmaniasis is a family of infectious diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania and transmitted through the bite of sandflies. The geographical distribution of Leishmaniasis is tied in to the abundance of sandflies, their life cycle, and the presence of the parasite reservoirs. The World Health Organization classifies Leishmaniasis as a neglected disease affecting the poorest communities around the world. This parasite is involved in pathologies that range from the cutaneous to the visceral forms, depending on the species of Leishmania and the host immune response. Leishmaniasis has traditionally been classified in three different clinical forms according of parasite tropism i.e. cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Other clinical manifestation can also occur, including diffuse cutaneous and post-kala azar dermal leishmaniasis. Thus, present review emphasizes critically on the most recent data with regard to various clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis, prevalence of the disease, causative agents, pathogenesis and immune response.

Keywords: Visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, post kala azar dermal leishmanasis, Leishmania.